Tekstilec, Vol. 58, 2015(2)





100      Analyses of Colour Appearances on Different Display Devices

………..Dejana Javoršek, Janja Močnik, Marica Starešinič Abstract and References

University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Department of Textiles, Snežniška ulica 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana

Original Scientific Article

Received 03-2015 • Accepted 04-2015


Corresponding author:

Assis. Prof. D.Sc. Dejana Javoršek

E-mail: dejana.javorsek@ntf.uni-lj.si



Displaying desired colours on the screen via the web is still a crucial part of being successful for artists and photographers. The aim of our research was to compare accuracies and varieties of displayed colours on different devices and variations on the same device. Seven Apple display screens of various devices were analysed (iPad 2, iPad 3, iPad Mini, iPhone 4, iPhone 5, iMac and MacBook Pro) using two different browsers Safari and Chrome. For iMac display profile iMac, and for MacBook Pro display profile Colour LCD were used. The colour gamuts shown in CIE 1931 x, y and the CIELAB colour diagram were compared with the standard colour space sRGB. The results show that the appearances of colours on different devices are mostly dependent on screen quality. The appearances of colours are largely influenced by the choices of browsers for devices that support colour profiles. In regard to devices with included colour profiles within their displays, it is important to choose a browser that enables colour management to take into account the display colour profile. In our case, the Safari browser takes into account the specific display profile whilst Chrome does not consider those profile. However the results also depend on other factors. These results are important for graphics and fashion designers as well as textile technologists, who present their work and products to their potential clients on different devices.

Keywords: colour management, browser, display devices, colour spaces




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108      Skewnes and Spirality of Knitted Structures

………..Alenka Pavko-Čuden Abstract and References

University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Department of Textiles, Snežniška ulica 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana

Scientific Review

Received 04-2014 • Accepted 05-2015


Corresponding author:

Assoc. Prof. D.Sc. Alenka Pavko Čuden

Tel.: +386 1 200 32 16

E-mail: alenka.cuden@ntf.uni-lj.si



Weft knitted structures are affected by various forms of dimensional distortion. Inclination and distortion of loops within knitted structures are commonly known as skewness and spirality, respectfuly. Causes of skewness and spirality have been thoroughly investigated, analyzed and classified. They can basically be divided into two groups: material causes and process causes. One of the material causes is yarn related and is caused by residual torque in the yarn shown by its twist-liveliness. One of the more important process causes is machine related and is connected to knitting with multiple feeders on the circular knitting machine. Skewness and spirality have been subjects of research for almost a century. Models have been developed for understanding and predicting the loop distortion phenomena. Procedures for reduction or even elimination of the skewness/spirality have continuously been developed and improved. Some of them include changes in raw material, the others in mechanical processes and/or equipment while the other again concentrate on after-treatments. Many standards and other testing methods for measuring the skewness and spirality have been used in research and industrial practice. The uses of many terms describing this phenomenon have shown the continuous importance of the skewness/spirality problem on the one hand and the inconsistency of the terminology on the other.

Keywords: knitting, knitted fabric, skewness, spirality, loop inclination, yarn liveliness, residual torque



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121      The Influence of External Factors on Contact Colour Measurement of the Human Skin

………..Elizabeta Jevnikar, Dejana Javoršek, Sabina Bračko Abstract and References

University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Department of Textiles, Snežniška ulica 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana


Original Scientific Article

Received 03-2014 • Accepted 05-2015


Corresponding author:

Assoc. Prof. D.Sc. Sabina Bračko

Tel.: +386 1 200 32 38

E-mail: sabina.bracko@ntf.uni-lj.si



Human skin is a complex and unpredictable organ. Its colour can be objectively evaluated by using the colour measurement methods. The results of the measurements are affected by many factors, the impacts of which are not fully defined as yet. Certain factors directly determining the colour of the skin are dependent upon the individual and cannot be controlled. The emphasis of the research was on the second group of factors that refer to the measurement conditions and are variable and adaptable. The aim of the research was to examine the impact of the number of consecutive measurements, the selection of a body part, location of the selected area within a specific part of the body, the size of the measuring aperture, and the temperature on skin colour. The appropriateness of the instruments and repeatability of the results were also assessed, depending on the number of consecutive measurements and the selected size of the measuring aperture. The measurements were performed using two different reflectance spectrophotometers with the participation of a total of 6 volunteers. Within the measurements, the above-mentioned conditions were gradually changed and the results were given in the form of reflection values, CIEL*a*b* coordinates, colour difference ∆E*ab, lightness difference ∆L*, chroma difference ∆C*ab and hue difference ∆H*ab within the CIELAB colour space. All of the examined factors were proved to have major impacts on the results of the measurements of skin colour. The results showed that performing 10 successive measurements at one point is suffcient for good repeatability. In order to achieve high repeatability be advised against selecting a small measuring aperture. Specifically defining the part of the body and the individual points of measurement is recommended depending on the purpose of the measurement and maintaining such an ambient temperature so as to avoid hampering the normal temperature of the skin’s surface.

Keywords: human skin, skin colour, colorimetry, spectrophotometry, CIELAB colour space



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135      Influence of the Washing Process and the Perspiration Effects on the Qualities of Printed Textile Substrates

………..Mladen Stančić1, Dragana Grujić2, Nemanja Kašiković3, Dragoljub Novaković3, Branka Ružičić1,

………..Rastko Milošević3 Abstract and References

1University of Banja Luka, Faculty of Technology, Department of Graphic Engineering

2University of Banja Luka, Faculty of Technology, Department of Textile Engineering

3University Of Novi Sad, Faculty Of Technical Science, Department Of Graphic Engineering And Design


Professional article

Received 07-2014 • /Accepted 12-2014


Corresponding author:

MSc Mladen Stančić

E-mail: mladen.stancic@unibl.rs



Clothes are exposed to different impacts during usages and maintenance. The more frequent impacts on textile materials are the washing processes and the perspiration effects. These mentioned effects are the causes of specific changes of the textile fibres and on colour reproduction on printed materials. This paper presents research into the impacts of a series of washing and perspiration effects on the colour reproduction studied with a spectrophotometric analysis and the water retention capacities of the prints using the screen-printing technique. The research results indicate that with the increase in the number of washes, major changes occurred in the reproduced colours compared to the colours of the samples that did not undergo the process of washing. It was determined that, besides the series of washings, the perspiration effects also had an impact on the reproduced colour changes. The impacts were also affrmed of printing and a series of washings on water retention on textile materials.

Keywords: screen-printing, washing process, perspiration effects, print quality, colour reproduction, water retention capacity


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