108  Clothing Pattern Construction Systems • Tanja Podbevšek Abstract and References

University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Department of Textiles, Snežniška 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana

Scientific Review
Received 03-2014 • Accepted 03-2014

Corresponding author:
dr. Tanja Podbevšek



A clothing pattern construction system is indispensable in every garment producing company. Using one of the so-called traditional systems is still very common in practice. Such a system includes complete instructions for the development of pattern parts of a garment from two-dimensional textile surfaces which more or less fits the body of the wearer. There are many contemporary construction systems on the market. Slovenian garment producing companies mostly use one of the German systems (Müller’s system) while the German ready-to-wear industry uses several different systems, which are also different from those used in Great Britain, Italy, Hungary etc. The paper offers a comparison of traditional clothing pattern construction systems from different authors. The specified comparison is drawn in the field of anthropometric measurement methods, designations of sizes/measurement tables, equations for calculating secondary measures, and methods of a clothing pattern construction that can be seen in different pattern cuts and their fittings to the physical dimensions of the body. The observed differences are abundant, substantial, and significant. The future pattern construction systems will include a computer-aided design based on the data gathered with 3D electronic body scanners. Such scanners enable faster and more complex data collection of body dimensions, body shapes and postures of potential garment consumers and consequently provide better garment fit to customers’ bodies.

Keywords: pattern construction systems, development of basic clothing pattern block, clothing anthropometry, measurement table, pattern development methods



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118  Biodegradation of Natural Textile Materials in Soil • Khubaib Arshad1, Mikael Skrifvars2, Vera Vivod3,
        Julija Volmajer Valh4 in Bojana Vončina3 Abstract and References

1University of Boras, The Swedish School of Textiles, Bryggaregatan 17, 501 90 Boras, Sweden
2University of Boras, School of Engineering, Allegatan 1, 501 90 Boras, Sweden
3PoliMaT, Centre of Excellence for Polymer Materials and Technologies, Tehnološki park 24, 1000 Ljubljana
4University of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Engineering Materials and Design, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor

Original Scientific Paper
Received 02-2014 • Accepted 02-2014

Corresponding author:
Prof. Dr. Sc. Bojana Vončina



World is facing numerous environmental challenges, one of them being the increasing pollution both in the atmosphere and landfills. After the goods have been used, they are either buried or burnt. Both ways of disposal are detrimental and hazardous to the environment. The term biodegradation is becoming more and more important, as it converts materials into water, carbon dioxide and biomass, which present no harm to the environment. Nowadays, a lot of research is performed on the development of biodegradable polymers, which can “vanish” from the Earth surface after being used. In this respect, this research work was conducted in order to study the biodegradation phenomenon of cellulosic and non-cellulosic textile materials when buried in soil, for them to be used in our daily lives with maximum efficiency and after their use, to be disposed of easily with no harmful effects to the environment. This research indicates the time span of the use life of various cellulosic and non-cellulosic materials such as cotton, jute, linen, flax, wool when used for the reinforcement of soil. The visual observations and applied microscopic methods revealed that the biodegradation of cellulose textile materials proceeded in a similar way as for non-cellulosic materials, the only difference being the time of biodegradation. The non-cellulosic textile material (wool) was relatively more resistant to microorganisms due to its molecular structure and surface.

Keywords: biodegradation, composting, natural textile materials, FT-IR



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133  Study on the Impact of Dye – Sublimation Printing on the Effectiveness of Underwear
         Viera Glombikova and Petra Komarkova Abstract and References

Technical University of Liberec, Faculty of Textile Engineering, Department of Clothing Technology, Liberec, Czech Republic

Original Scientific Paper
Received 02-2014 • Accepted 04-2014 

Corresponding author:
Ph.D. Viera Glombikova, Ing. Bc
Tel.: +420 485353124



This study deals with the effect of dye-sublimation printing on the performance of underwear. Two groups of polyester knitted fabrics were analysed. The change of tree selected groups of properties was investigated before and after the application of dye-sublimation printing, namely durability (breaking force and elongation, abrasion resistance and pilling resistance), physiological properties (water vapour permeability, air permeability) and colour-fastness (resistance to rubbing, to domestic and commercial laundering, to perspiration). Further, the structure changes of fabrics (thickness and density) during heat pressing both without application of dyes (without transfer printing on material) and with application of dyes were also studied to analyse the affect extent of printing conditions (particularly pressure and temperature) on total wear comfort printed fabrics. The results show that the tested materials meet requirements in terms of colour-fastness to rubbing, to domestic and commercial laundering and to perspiration to a very high standard (grade 5). In terms of abrasion resistance and pilling resistance the material also showed high resistance. The air permeability for both fabrics decreased by about 40% in comparison with the value obtained before printing and the mechanical properties slightly increased (about 8%). This was due to an increase in the stitch density and a decrease in the thickness, therefore reducing the porosity of the material for printing conditions, mainly due to the influence of the pressure and temperature within the heat press machine.

Keywords: dye-sublimation printing, underwear, physiological comfort, colour-fastness, mechanical properties, structure changes



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139  Nanomaterials for Functional Textiles • Marijana Lakić1, Aljoša Košak1, 2,
        Andreja Gutmaher1, 2 in Aleksandra Lobnik1, 2 Abstract and References

1 University of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Smetanova 17, SI-2000 Maribor
2 IOS, Ltd., Institute for environmental protection and sensors, Beloruska 7, SI-2000 Maribor

Scientific Review
Received 01-2014 • Accepted 04-2014 

Corresponding author:
Prof. Dr. Aleksandra Lobnik
Tel.: +386 2 220 79 12



In the last decade, the advancement of nanotechnology and its application in several areas has been encouraging the global competition, and many industries need innovative solutions in order to provide better performance and enhanced value to their products. The development of high-functional nanomaterials represents a powerful source of potential innovation and progress in the European textile industry, which can only compete with the rest of the world with the products with added value. The development of functional and smart textiles with built-in advanced high-functional nanomaterials presents an important market niche with a high amount of built-in knowledge and use of modern technologies. The use of high-functional nanomaterials in textiles gives the new desired specific functional properties that can enhance the comfort and quality of life, safety, and can ease the control of health. Despite the fact that advanced high-functional nano-textile products give new functions, they shall keep all the essential features of textiles, such as wearability, flexibility, softness, elasticity, lightness, washability etc. Today, the textile industry mainly uses high-functional inorganic and polymeric nanoparticles, nanostructured materials, nanocomposites and nanofibres to achieve the functional properties such as antistatic, antimicrobial, self-cleaning, reinforcement etc. In this paper, we present in detail the nanomaterials that are most commonly used for the development of functional textiles with the emphasis on hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties, textiles with improved colouring and with increased resistance to colour fading, textiles used for UV-protection and fire-resistant textiles.

Keywords: nanomaterials, hydrophobic textiles, hydrophilic textiles, UV-protective textiles, flame retardant textiles, superhydrophobicity




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153  Influence of Finishing and Water on Functioning of Passive UHF RFID Tags on Different Fabrics

        • Bojana Hvala, Barbara Simončič and Tadeja Muck Abstract and References

University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Department of Textiles, SI-1000 Ljubljana 

Original Scientific Paper
Received 04-2014 • Accepted 05-2014 

Corresponding author:
Prof. Dr. Tadeja Muck
Tel.: +386 1 200 32 84



The research focuses on the area of interactive radio frequency identification technology (RFID) and its use in the tagging of textile and garments. The research aim was to take into consideration the influence of water and water-repellent finishing in a real environment on the operability of passive ultra-high frequency (UHF) RFID tags on different types of fabric. The tags reading rate on dry, wet, non-repellent and water-repellent finished cotton and polyester fabrics was studied. The water- and oil-repellent nanocomposite sol-gel finishing with fluorocarbon functional precursors was applied on fabrics as well as on tags. The reading frequency depending on the distance between an RFID tag or tags, respectively, fixed on fabrics and the reader antenna was measured. It was found that water has a negative impact on the reading rate of UHF RFID tags, since it absorbs the radio frequency waves. Wetting has a larger effect on cotton than on polyester fabrics. The tags positioned on the first fabric layer show the best results. The positioning of three tags successively one after another between layers of fabric causes a shadowing effect and reduction of reading rate and reading accuracy. With the application of the water and oil-repellent nanocomposite sol-gel finishing, the effect of wetting is reduced and consequently, tags responsiveness increases. It was also found out that finishing has a positive impact on the tag readability in the near field, i.e. on average the maximum reading length, as it has on the increase of tag responsiveness if they are positioned successively on the fabrics in the manner of overlapping.

Keywords: UHF RFID tag, Gen 2 standard, water- and oil-repellent finishing, cotton fabric, polyester fabric



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