4 Application of Microtomography in Textile Metrology Acid • Katarina Doczyova, Viera Glombikova and Petra Komarkova Abstract and References

Technical University of Liberec, Faculty of Textile Engineering, Department of Clothing Technology, Liberec, Czech Republic


Original Scientific Paper
Received/12-2013 • Accepted/01-2014


Corresponding author:
Ph.D. Viera Glombikova, Ing.
Telephone: +420 485 353 124



Porosity represents one of the parameters of knitted fabrics, which significantly affects their air permeability and thus the overall physiological comfort of knitted clothes. X-ray computed microtomography (µCT) is a relatively new but not yet widely used method for studying textile porosity. The paper discusses the use of a 3D image of the textile structure obtained by applying μCT in the textile metrology. Specifically, it deals with the analysis of options for determining the 3D porosity of knitted fabric by μCT and subsequent analysis of the relationship of porosity versus the fabric permeability to air. The first part of the article was aimed to analyse the suitability of application of µCT to determine the 3D porosity of textile materials and determination of appropriate measurement conditions. Obtained porosity data measured by the 3D device SkyScan 1174 was compared to the porosity calculated by the standard mathematical model. The research results show that μCT system is suitable alternative method for 3D porosity measurement. There is very small difference (about 6%) between the percentage of the air volume of the examined knitted fabric obtained by µCT (64.6%) and porosity expressed through the volume fraction by standard mathematical model (70.6%). The last part analyses the dependent relationship between porosity of the knitted structures obtained by using μCT SkyScan 1174 and air permeability measured on FX device 3300 according to EN ISO 9237. Analysis between air permeability and measured porosity of others knitted structures verified correctness of suggested measurement process of 3D porosity.

Keywords: micro CT, 3D porosity, knitted fabric, air permeability, 3D model of knitted fabric



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12 Analysis and Development of Algorithm for Solving Complaints of Consumers • Urška Stankovič Elesini1, Sabina Kodarin1,Jože Urankar2, Andreja Potočnik3 and Primož WeingerlAbstract and References

1 University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Department of Textiles, Snežniška 5, 1000 Ljubljana

2Acourt Expert and Valuer for Textile and Leather-Fur Field, Brezovica pri Dobu 12A, 1233 Dob

3City of Ljubljana, Department Department for Commercial Activities and Traffic, Trg MDB 7, 1000 Ljubljana


Original Scientific Paper
Received 02-2014 • Accepted 02-2014


Corresponding author:
izr. prof. dr. Urška Stankovič Elesini
Telephone: +386 1 200 32 29



Depending on their expectations about the product, consumers can be satisfied, dissatisfied or impressed when they purchase a product. When they are dissatisfied with the product, they have the right to complain. They can enforce their rights from clerical errors. If the fault is not contested, companies must meet the consumers’ demands. If the fault is contested and the company does not recognize it, the consumers must decide whether to continue with the process of complaint. Ten hypotheses concerning the complaint procedure were developed in this research. They were made on the primary and secondary data basis. The primary data were obtained from long experienced work within the Textile and Leather Development Monitoring Committee. The hypotheses cover the consumers’ knowledge about the rights arising from clerical errors, the reasons for complaints and dealing with the question of why consumers in solving complaints do not turn to third parties more often, especially when a company does not react to the consumer’s complaint, leading to the consumer disagreeing with such a solution. The data for verifying the hypotheses were obtained by means of an online questionnaire. To verify the hypothesis of equal probability and the hypothesis of independence, the Pearson’s χ2 test was used. The Cochran Q test was used when several answers were possible. On the basis of accepted/rejected hypotheses and corresponding findings, the algorithm for solving complaints was developed. The algorithm specifies the procedure of solving complaints in a demonstrable and understandable way.

Keywords: consumer, complaint, third-party, questionnaire, algorithm



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32 Visual and Functional Properties of Digital Printed and Finished Anaglyph Pictures on Cotton Fabric • Špela Zakrajšek, Danaja Štular, Špela Vasič Stepančič, Brigita Tomšič, Marija Gorjanc, Barbara Simončič in Petra Forte Tavčer Abstract and References

University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Department of Textiles, Snežniška 5, 1000 Ljubljana


Original Scientific Paper
Received 11-2013 • Accepted 01-2014


 Corresponding author:
prof. dr. Petra Forte Tavčer
Telephone: +3861 200 32 93



The aim of the study was to examine the influence of various protective finishes on the visual properties of anaglyph images and CMYK primary colours digitally printed on a cotton fabric. Using the impregnation process, one-component water- and oil-repellent, and flame retardant finishes, as well as their combination were subsequently applied on the printed samples. A visual evaluation was determined for the 3D visual effect of printed samples before and after the finishing, one and five washings, and after seventy-two hours of exposure to artificial light. The colour fastness of prints after repeated washing, exposure to artificial light, dry and wet rubbing was determined. The repellence properties of studied finishes were studied by measuring the contact angles of water and n-hexadecane, while the vertical flammability test was used for the determination of flame retardancy. The wash fastness of the studied finishes was also taken into observation. The results showed that the presence of finishes changed the colour properties of prints; however, it did not impair the 3D effect of the anaglyph image, which was maintained even after repeated washings and exposure to artificial light. The presence of finishes improved the wash fastness of the M and Y colour, and impaired the wash fastness of the C and K colour. The light fastness of unfinished printed samples was poor, but it improved for the M, Y and K colours after the application of finishes. The prints did not influence the functional repellent and flame retardant properties. However, the impaired wash fastness of finishes was observed.

Keywords: cotton fabric, digital printing, anaglyph images, 3D effects, colour fastness, influence of finish



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43 Collection of Post-Consumer Textile Waste in Assembly Centres across Slovenia • Zala Žurga in Petra Forte Tavčer Abstract and References

University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Department of Textiles, Snežniška 5, 1000 Ljubljana


Original Scientific Paper
Received 10-2013 • Accepted 02-2014


Corresponding author:
prof. dr. Petra Forte Tavčer
Telephone: +3861 200 32 93



Conservation of natural resources, a reduction of harmful effects of waste generation, reduced need for landfill space related with the payment of environmental taxes, creation of new “green” jobs together with the supply of low-cost materials – all that can be a result of organized, efficient waste collection, which enables reuse and recycling processes. A separate waste collection means a professional and thoughtful collection, which prevents landfilling of materials due to the leakage of potentially hazardous substances into the environment, e.g. landfill gas, drainage waters, dust and odour, posing a threat to the environment. Therefore, the EU has issued a directive which requires a separate collection of textile waste in designated containers located in assembly centres. The assembly centres are facilities arranged for receiving waste, including their preliminary sorting and storage for the purposes of transportation to a waste treatment facility. This paper presents the quantity, type and waste management of clothing and textiles collected in the assembly centres in Slovenia in 2012. The data were collected using a descriptive method (personal interviews and an online questionnaire) and were evaluated using descriptive statistics. The study includes 54 of jointly 59 (n = 54) respondents, administrators of assembly centres in Slovenia. The largest share of the assembly centres collects clothing and textiles (78%), while a small proportion of them (15%) collects clothing only and an even smaller (2%) proportion of them stopped collecting textile waste. In 2012, an average assembly centre in Slovenia collecting clothes and textiles (n = 43) collected approximately 15 tons of waste clothing and textiles. Furthermore, the assembly centres collecting clothes only collected approximately 4 tons of waste clothing. The majority of respondents rated the collected clothes of higher quality compared to the collected textiles. Among the clothes, T-shirts, shirts and outerwear were collected to the largest extent, while among the textiles, the mattresses and bedding. The vast majority of respondents believed that the collected textiles have an economic value and that the interest in taking over the waste already exists. In this paper, the quantity, type and further treatment of waste clothing and textiles collected at the assembly centres is examined.

Keywords: post-consumer textile waste-quantity, type, further treatment, assembly centres, waste clothes, waste textiles, textile waste collection



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